The key is in the size of the neutron star, the researchers say; too big and they’d collapse down to black holes. Too small and they’d simply exist as run of the mill neutron stars. Since the tipping point is believed to be such stars that are of twice the density as the sun, the discovery of a neutron star last year, PSR J1614-2230 (the largest ever found) with a solar masses of 1.97 seems to fit the bill as it’s about as dense as a neutron star can get without collapsing. The researchers speculate that in order to achieve such a density, the neutrons at its core would have to facilitate a means of having the same number of neutrons in a smaller space. And because cubes are more efficient, they theorize that those neutrons closet to the core, would be the ones squished down to cube shapes.Llanes-Estrada likens it to a stack of oranges sitting on a grocer’s shelf. Normally spherical they begin to flatten as more and more are piled on top. If the same amount of weight (gravity) were applied in all directions, the oranges would flatten from both above and below, but also on all sides as well.In their natural state, as spheres, neutrons have a packing density of about 74%; collapsing them down to cubes, creating a sort of crystal lattice such as happens when diamonds from carbon in the Earth, could possibly bring that number up to nearly 100%.Not everyone agrees with the results of the duo’s paper, some even suggesting that the huge density numbers could come about as the result of the blurring of lines between individual neutrons; but the two researchers seem undaunted, suggesting that pushing boundaries, is all a part of science. Probing the origins of extreme neutron stars Trial wavefunction that interpolates between sphere, and cube. Image: arXiv:1108.1859v1 [nucl-th] Citation: Researchers theorize that neutrons may be squished into cubes in neutron stars (2011, August 18) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2011-08-theorize-neutrons-squished-cubes-neutron.html Explore further More information: Cubic neutrons, arXiv:1108.1859v1 [nucl-th] arxiv.org/abs/1108.1859AbstractThe neutron is largely spherical and incompressible in atomic nuclei. These two properties are however challenged in the extreme pressure environment of a neutron star. Our variational computation within the Cornell model of Coulomb gauge QCD shows that the neutron (and also the Delta-3/2 baryon) can adopt cubic symmetry at an energy cost of about 150 MeV. Balancing this with the free energy gained by tighter neutron packing, we expose the possible softening of the equation of state of neutron matter.via Arxiv Blog This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. © 2011 PhysOrg.com (PhysOrg.com) — Neutrons, those particles that reside here on Earth inside the nucleus of atoms, along with protons, collectively called nucleons, are thought to exist in the far reaches of the universe inside of so-named neutron stars, which are the remnants of stars that have exploded. In a paper published on the preprint server arXiv, Spanish physicists Felipe Llanes-Estrada, and Gaspar Moreno Navarro, suggest that the densities in the cores of certain sizes of such neutron stars might be so great as to squash the neutrons down from their normal spherical shape, into cubes.
Normally when an app is downloaded from a reliable source, it comes with something called the Android Application Package File (APK). The purpose of the file is to allow the app to prove that it’s not been modified since being installed—a sign that it’s been hacked and changed. A check is made every time the app is run. To make it more difficult for hackers to modify existing apps, the APK is given a cryptographic signature. Now Bluebox is reporting that they’ve found a way to modify existing apps on a smartphone, without disturbing the cryptographic signature. Worse, they say, the vulnerability goes all the way back to Android 1.6, which was released nearly four years ago. That they say, means that 900 million devices are currently at risk.Modification of an app allows a hacker to cause the app to do things the user is not aware of, such as access data. One of the most serious scenarios, Bluebox says, is if an app made by the manufacturer of a phone is changed. Such apps, they note, generally have access to phone functionality in addition to services such as text messages. That means a modified app could be made to control the phone’s camera, for example, or to place calls.Bluebox isn’t revealing exactly how a hacker might take advantage of the vulnerability—that would be inviting trouble, of course. They do say that they notified Google of what they’d found back in February, and that presumably the tech giant is working on a solution. In the meantime, they suggest phone users abstain from downloading apps from risky third party sites. They also strongly encourage enterprise managers to encourage all users of a given system to update their devices as soon as a fix becomes available. The company is also promising to reveal more about the nature of the vulnerability at this year’s Black Hat USA 2013 conference. Explore further Screenshot of HTC Phone After Exploit (Phys.org) —Mobile security startup Bluebox Security has revealed via a post on its website a vulnerability in smartphones running the Android operating system. The vulnerability, they say could allow hackers to modify code in apps running on a phone without breaking the app’s cryptographic signature. Feature stops apps from stealing phone users’ passwords Citation: Bluebox Security reveals Android vulnerability in run up to Blackhat convention (2013, July 4) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2013-07-bluebox-reveals-android-vulnerability-blackhat.html © 2013 Phys.org This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
Explore further Journal information: Science Researchers from Jilin University in China have elucidated a part of the mechanism of zeolite crystallization and have demonstrated that forming hydroxyl radicals (•OH) using UV irradiation produces highly crystalline zeolites in less time than typical syntheses because it speeds up the nucleation process. Their work appears in Science.Upon baking an alumino-silicate species, in varying proportions in a strong base and in the presence of a cation, researchers are able to make many types of zeolite structures. Feng, et al. wanted to see how the formation of hydroxyl radicals would affect zeolite synthesis. They first compared Na2O-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O systems made under UV conditions and under typical conditions, or what they call “dark conditions.” XRD and SEM studies showed that Na-X, NaZ-21, and Na-A were formed after twenty-four hours under UV conditions, but were still amorphous under dark conditions.They then wanted to test the effects of different densities of UV irradiation on the system. They used zeolite Na-A at 298K and tested it with UV irradiation of 2.0, 4.0, and 8.0 mW/cm2 as well as under dark conditions. They observed a defined crystal after 52, 40, and 36 hours, respectively.They then tested the effects of using a smaller molar ratio of Na2O/SiO2 (3.08 vs 4.4). This should reduce the concentration of OH- and would provide further insight into the mechanism. Under dark conditions crystals were formed after 55 hours. Under UV conditions, crystals were formed after 40 hours, which is faster than the higher molar ratio under dark conditions.Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy was used to identify the radical species in both the light and dark conditions, confirming the presence of hydroxyl radicals in the UV conditions. Additional tests showed that hydroxyl radicals are present in zeolites formed from the dark conditions but in lower concentrations. Another way to form hydroxyl radical is to use Fenton’s reagent, a strong oxidant. Using silicalite-1 as an example, Feng, et al. found that Fenton’s reagent makes a higher concentration of hydroxyl radicals than UV irradiation. Long-range order of silicalite-1was observed after 40 hours, compared to 50 hours after UV irradiation and 70 hours under dark conditions. This provides further proof that the concentration of hydroxyl radicals affects the rate of zeolite crystallization.Finally, Feng, et al. tested whether the presence of hydroxyl radicals speeds up both nucleation and crystal growth, or if it only affects one of these steps. By pretreating zeolite Na-A with UV irradiation and then allowing crystallization under dark conditions, they determined that hydroxyl radicals likely speed up the nucleation stage. The crystal growth stage remained constant under both UV and dark conditions. This research provides valuable insight into the zeolite crystallization mechanism, which can facilitate a more efficient production process in zeolite synthesis. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. © 2016 Phys.org Credit: Guodong Feng, et al. (Phys.org)—Zeolite is a Greek word that literally means a boiling stone. They are porous materials used as adsorbents, catalysts, and as ion-exchangers, and used for water filtration, detergents, and air separation, among other things. Typically zeolites are made in the laboratory using a sol-gel process that involves baking the alumino silicate mixture in an oven for several days. While the crystallization process involves bond formation, breakage, and re-formation, the details of this mechanism are largely unknown. Researchers find definitive evidence of how zeolites grow More information: G. Feng et al. Accelerated crystallization of zeolites via hydroxyl free radicals, Science (2016). DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf1559AbstractIn the hydrothermal crystallization of zeolites from basic media, hydroxide ions (OH–) catalyze the depolymerization of the aluminosilicate gel by breaking the Si,Al–O–Si,Al bonds and catalyze the polymerization of the aluminosilicate anions around the hydrated cation species by remaking the Si,Al–O–Si,Al bonds. We report that hydroxyl free radicals (•OH) are involved in the zeolite crystallization under hydrothermal conditions. The crystallization processes of zeolites—such as Na–A, Na–X, NaZ–21, and silicalite-1—can be accelerated with hydroxyl free radicals generated by ultraviolet irradiation or Fenton’s reagent. Citation: Hydroxyl radicals speed up zeolite formation (2016, March 28) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2016-03-hydroxyl-radicals-zeolite-formation.html
This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Explore further A team of researchers at the California Institute of Technology has taken a hard look at the challenges facing efforts to carry out the Breakthrough Starshot project. In their Perspective piece published in the journal Nature Materials, the researchers outline the obstacles still facing project engineers and possible solutions. Citation: Issues still to be addressed for Breakthrough Starshot project (2018, May 8) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2018-05-issues-breakthrough-starshot.html First test of Breakthrough Starshot interstellar probe highlights likely damage due to gas and dust Journal information: Nature Materials © 2018 Phys.org Breakthrough Starshot is a project launched by backer Yuri Milner two years ago—its aim is to send a spacecraft out of the solar system toward Alpha Centauri by the middle of this century. Most designs for such a spacecraft surround the idea of a light sail and a tiny device to allow for communications. The craft would be powered by a laser array situated on Earth. To reach Alpha Centauri in a reasonable amount of time, the craft will need to travel very fast, close to 20 percent of the speed of light. Alpha Centauri is, after all, 4.37 light years away. And while the concept is relatively simple, the design presents serious challenges, as the team highlights.A light sail can be pushed by beams from a laser due to momentum carried by photons, the researchers note. But for it to work, the sail must be reflective. It will also have to be very thin (perhaps just a few atoms across) and lightweight, less than a gram. Thus far, engineers have looked at graphene, but it is not reflective, which means it would need a coating of some sort. On the other hand, reflective materials such as metals are too heavy. A suitable material has not yet been found, the team reports.Another challenge the team will face is how to keep multiple laser beams steady and focused as they pass through the Earth’s atmosphere. That will likely mean use of low near-infrared beams, which means the sail would have to be able to reflect such wavelengths of light. But then issues of weight and heat generation come into play. Such issues, the team notes, mean that engineers will have to balance many factors to find just the right combination of materials.Something else the team will have to consider is the shape of the sail—it will not likely be a simple flat sheet, because imperfections on its surface would send the craft careening off into space. Instead, engineers will have to develop a design that allows for self-correction. More information: Harry A. Atwater et al. Materials challenges for the Starshot lightsail, Nature Materials (2018). DOI: 10.1038/s41563-018-0075-8AbstractThe Starshot Breakthrough Initiative established in 2016 sets an audacious goal of sending a spacecraft beyond our Solar System to a neighbouring star within the next half-century. Its vision for an ultralight spacecraft that can be accelerated by laser radiation pressure from an Earth-based source to ~20% of the speed of light demands the use of materials with extreme properties. Here we examine stringent criteria for the lightsail design and discuss fundamental materials challenges. We predict that major research advances in photonic design and materials science will enable us to define the pathways needed to realize laser-driven lightsails.
More information: Silke Weinfurtner et al. Measurement of Stimulated Hawking Emission in an Analogue System, Physical Review Letters (2011). DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.106.021302 F. Belgiorno et al. Hawking Radiation from Ultrashort Laser Pulse Filaments, Physical Review Letters (2010). DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.105.203901 Ulf Leonhardt. Questioning the Recent Observation of Quantum Hawking Radiation, Annalen der Physik (2018). DOI: 10.1002/andp.201700114 Jonathan Drori et al. Observation of Stimulated Hawking Radiation in an Optical Analogue, Physical Review Letters (2019). DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.122.010404 “Imagine, like in Einstein’s gedanken experiments, light chasing after another pulse of light,” Leonhardt explained. “Suppose that all the light travels inside an optical fiber. In the fiber glass, the pulse changes the speed of the light chasing it a little, such that the light cannot overtake the pulse. It experiences a white-hole horizon; a place it cannot enter. The front of the pulse acts like the exact opposite: a black-hole horizon, a place the light cannot leave. This is the idea in a nutshell.” Leonhardt and his colleagues published and demonstrated this idea in 2008. Subsequently, they tried to use it to demonstrate Hawking radiation.Hawking radiation has never been directly observed in space, as this is not currently feasible. However, it can be demonstrated in laboratory environments, for instance, using Bose-Einstein condensates, water waves, polaritons or light. In the past, several researchers tried to test Hawking radiation in the lab using these techniques, yet most of their studies were, in fact, problematic and have thus been disputed. Back in 1974, renowned physicist Stephen Hawking amazed the physics world with his theory of Hawking radiation, which suggested that rather than being black, black holes should glow slightly due to quantum effects near the black hole’s event horizon. According to Hawking’s theory, the strong gravitational field around a black hole can affect the production of matching pairs of particles and anti-particles.Should these particles be created just outside the event horizon, the positive member of this pair of particles could escape, resulting in an observed thermal radiation emitting from the black hole. This radiation, which was later termed Hawking radiation, would hence consist of photons, neutrinos and other subatomic particles. The theory of Hawking radiation was among the first to combine concepts from quantum mechanics with Albert Einstein’s theory of General Relativity. “I learned General Relativity in 1997 by lecturing a course, not by taking a course,” Ulf Leonhardt, one of the researchers who carried out the recent study, told Phys.org. “This was a rather stressful experience where I was just a few weeks ahead of the students, but I really got to know General Relativity and fell in love with it. Fittingly, this also happened in Ulm, Einstein’s birthplace. Since then, I have been looking for connections between my field of research, quantum optics and General Relativity. My main goal is to demystify General Relativity. If, as I and others have shown, ordinary optical materials like glass act like curved spaces, then the curved space-time of General Relativity becomes something tangible, without losing its charm.” In collaboration with his first Ph.D. student Paul Piwnicki, Leonhardt put together some initial ideas of how to create optical black holes, which were published in 1999 and 2000. In 2004, he finally achieved a method that actually worked, which is the one used in his recent study. Journal information: Physical Review Letters The parabolic mirror in the background focuses dark-red light into the fibre that shines bright-blue on the other end. A tiny bit of the bright light is Hawking radiation, which the researchers extracted and measured. Credit: Drori et al. Citation: Testing Hawking radiation in laboratory black hole analogues (2019, January 25) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2019-01-hawking-laboratory-black-hole-analogues.html For instance, some past findings obtained with intense light pulses in optical media turned out to be inconsistent with theory. Rather than observing Hawking radiation made by horizons, as the authors themselves found out later, they had, in fact, observed horizon-less radiation created by their light pulses, as they exceeded the phase velocity of light for other frequencies. Other studies attempting to observe Hawking radiation on water waves and in Bose-Einstein condensates also turned out to be problematic. Discussing the outcomes of these studies with Physics World, Leonhardt wrote, “I greatly admire the heroism of the people doing them, and their technical skills and expertise, but this is a difficult subject.” He also wrote: “Horizons are perfect traps; it is easy to get trapped behind them without noticing, and this applies to horizon research, as well. We learn and become experts according to the classic definition: An expert is someone who has made all possible mistakes (and learned from them).” As proven by previous efforts, observing Hawking radiation in the lab is a highly challenging task. The study carried out by Leonhardt and his colleagues could be the first valid demonstration of Hawking radiation in optics. “Black holes are surrounded by their event horizons,” Leonhardt explained. “The horizon marks the border where light can no longer escape. Hawking predicted that at the horizon light quanta—photons—are created. One photon appears outside the horizon and is able to get away, while its partner appears on the inside and falls into the black hole. According to quantum mechanics, particles are associated with waves. The photon on the outside belongs to a wave that oscillates with positive frequency, the wave of its partner on the inside oscillates with a negative frequency.”In their study, Leonhardt and his colleagues made light out of positive and negative frequencies. Their positive-frequency light was infrared, while the negative-frequency one was ultraviolet. The researchers detected both of them and then compared them with Hawking’s theory.The tiny bit of ultraviolet light that they managed to detect using sensitive equipment is the first clear sign of stimulated Hawking radiation in optics. This radiation is referred to as ‘stimulated’ because it is stimulated by the probe light that the researchers sent in to chase the pulses. “Our most important finding, perhaps, is that black holes are not something out of the ordinary, but that they closely resemble what light pulses do to ordinary light in fibers,” Leonhardt said. “Demonstrating subtle quantum phenomena like Hawking radiation is not easy. It takes extremely short pulses, extraordinary fibers, sensitive equipment and, last but not least, the hard work of dedicated students. But even Hawking radiation is something one can actually understand.”The study carried out by Leonhardt and his colleagues is an important contribution to the physics field, as it provides the first laboratory demonstration of Hawking radiation in optics. The researchers also found the analogy to event horizons to be remarkably robust, despite pushing the optics to the extreme, which increased their confidence in the validity of their theories. “We now need to improve our setup to get ready for the next big challenge: the observation of spontaneous Hawking radiation,” Leonhardt said. “In this case, the radiation is not stimulated anymore, except by the inevitable fluctuations of the quantum vacuum. Our next goals are steps that improve the apparatus and test various aspects of stimulated Hawking radiation, before going all the way to spontaneous Hawking radiation.” , Physics World Explore further © 2019 Science X Network This image shows an electron-microscope picture of the interior of one of the researchers’ fibres. The fibres are sophisticated photopic-crystal fibres. They are as thin as a human hair and inside they carry hole structures that guide the light in the centre. Credit: Drori et al. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Researchers at Weizmann Institute of Science and Cinvestav recently carried out a study testing the theory of Hawking radiation on laboratory analogues of black holes. In their experiments, they used light pulses in nonlinear fiber optics to establish artificial event horizons. Black holes dissolving like aspirin: How Hawking changed physics
In recent years, there have been many reports describing the damage that plastics are doing to the environment—whether in landfills, atop high mountains or in the deepest part of the ocean. It seems plastics have made their way to every part of the planet. And now, that list includes tiny coral polyps.As part of their study of corals and how they are faring in the face of warmer and more acidified oceans, the researchers collected several specimens of A. poculata—they live just off the eastern coast of the United States. The specimens the team collected were found off the coast of Rhode Island, near the city of Providence. The site was selected due to its proximity to a large urban area, which meant there was a lot of plastic in the water. The researchers focused on microplastics, tiny bits smaller than five millimeters across. They suspected it could wind up inside of corals.Back in their lab, the researchers cut open the specimens and discovered that every single polyp contained at least 100 bits of microplastic—the first recorded instance of coral consuming plastic in the wild. Next, the team dumped microbeads into tanks of lab-raised coral along with their normal food, shrimp eggs. When they later cut the corals open, they found that there was twice as much plastic in their polyps as there were shrimp eggs. The researchers claim this shows the coral has a strong preference for plastic bits over natural food. In a follow-up experiment, the researchers dunked a batch of plastic beads into the ocean, which allowed bacteria to form a biofilm on them. They then laced the biofilm with E. coli and fed the beads to lab-raised corals. The team reports that even though the corals spit out the beads two days later, they all died from E. coli infections. The team suggests this finding indicates that a lot of coral might be dying from infections carried by plastics. , Proceedings of the Royal Society B Sea anemones are ingesting plastic microfibers Explore further A team of researchers from Boston University, Roger Williams University, the New England Aquarium, Boston Children’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School and UMass Boston, reports that one type of coral prefers to eat microplastics over natural food. In their paper published in Proceedings of the Royal Society B, the group describes experiments they conducted with Astrangia poculata, a type of coral, and what they found. Journal information: ZooKeys Astrangia. Credit: Stephen Cairns et al. An illustrated key to the genera and subgenera of the Recent azooxanthellate Scleractinia (Cnidaria, Anthozoa), with an attached glossary, ZooKeys (2012). DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.227.3612. Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported license Citation: Coral found to prefer eating microplastic to natural food (2019, June 27) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2019-06-coral-microplastic-natural-food.html More information: Randi D. Rotjan et al. Patterns, dynamics and consequences of microplastic ingestion by the temperate coral, Astrangia poculata, Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences (2019). DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2019.0726 This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. © 2019 Science X Network
Honey is seen as an ideal natural ingredient to do away with skin dryness and there is more to this sweet kitchen ingredient. Make honey part of your beauty regime to get natural glow, reports huffingtonpost.com.Usage of honey in multiple ways: Facial scrub: Women with sensitive skin can prepare a face mask made of honey, brown sugar, olive oil and lemon juice. It’s less abrasive, yet removes dead skin cells to reveal a smoother and more vibrant complexion. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’Hair removal: Mix honey and lemon juice and pour into a sugaring wax that’s safe to use on your body. This will remove hair and also make your skin soft.Scars: To make the scars leave your side, apply raw honey on the affected areas before bed and cover with a bandage. In the morning, remove the cover-up and cleanse the skin.Bath treatment: Take bath with milk and honey. The alpha hydroxy acids in milk breaks down dry and flaky skin, while the enzymes in honey softens skin.Sunburn: Honey helps to soothe sunburns. You just need to dab on a little honey on skin.Chapped lips: Mix honey, brown sugar and olive oil, and apply on your lips. This mixture will moisturise chappy lips.
BALURGHAT: In a historic move, Trinamool Congress-led Balurghat civic board has retained 650 casual workers, who were mostly recruited through NGOs during the Left regime.After coming to power, the new Trinamool board had started the process of retaining them so that they can work till the age of 60.According to an official source, it was due to the lackadaisical attitude of the erstwhile Left government due to which the casual workers had not been retained Also Read – Heavy rain hits traffic, flightsduring the Left regime.Visibly overwhelmed Subrata Chakraborty, the leader of civic employees’ association said: “No doubt the decision is historic. The casual workers will work till the age of 60 without discontinuation. We had earlier demanded the issue of their retention to the Left board also but our demand was vehemently ignored. We are grateful to the new board.”Notably, Balurghat Municipality was recently felicitated by the Centre and a fund amounting around to Rs 9, 00, 000, 00 has been sanctioned to implement various development projects undertaken by the Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Merc, 2 B’deshi bystanders killedpresent board.Civic chairman Rajen Shill said: “We were being honoured by the Centre recently and stood second, next to Gaighata civic body of North 24 Paraganas in the state, regarding the matter of running flawless administration and various civic activities. A fund has also been allocated as recognition.”Answering a question about the retention of casual workers waiting for over four decades, Shill said: “We had promised to the casual workers for retention while took charge of the new board. There will be no job insecurity for them.”
Kolkata: A Trinamool Congress leader was shot dead by unidentified miscreants in Howrah’s Bagnan on Monday night. Police have so far arrested two persons in this connection. The incident has triggered tension after local Trinamool Congress activists put up road blocks on the National Highway 6 till late Monday night. Local Trinamool Congress leaders have alleged that BJP-backed goons have been behind the incident. TMC secretary general Partha Chatterjee reacted sharply to the incident and said: “They create much hue and cry over what happens in Purulia. Also Read – Heavy rain hits traffic, flightsThey come to Bengal to kill people. They try to establish a suicide incident as murder and suppress what is genuinely a murder incident.”According to the district police, the victim, Mohosin Khan stood in front of his house at Noapara at around 11.30 pm on Monday when some miscreants reached the spot on motorcycles. One of them suddenly took out a gun and shot him from a point-blank range. Khan fell on the ground after receiving two bullets in his head and abdomen. The miscreants fled the spot immediately. The family members of the victim have alleged that this was a preplanned murder. The district TMC leaders also alleged that the BJP-assisted criminals were responsible for it. An irate mob set some portions of nearby houses on fire. The situation turned hostile and senior police officers had to intervene to maintain law and order.